India achieved great success in science and spacecraft technology as the Chandrayaan-3 successfully landed on the surface of the Moon on 23 August. ISRO's pioneering lunar mission, powered by solar panel technology, has rewritten history. Solar energy played a vital role in Chandrayaan-3's imminent lunar landing. Traditional power sources in space are limited; hence, the significance of solar energy for fueling spacecraft systems is even greater.

Solar Panels Integral Role in Chandrayaan-3's Success

Solar energy played a pivotal role in the success of the Indian Chandrayaan 3-moon mission. 

chandrayaan3 moon mission

However solar energy in India is used for various activities, including electricity generation, but this time, it has created history. Unlike Earth, where many power sources are available, the Moon's harsh environment offers no such luxury; hence, ISRO scientists explored an innovative solution that sustains the power requirement of the spacecraft. In the cold expanse of space, solar panels are the unsung heroes that harness the most abundant resource: sunlight.

The success of the Indian Chandrayaan 3-moon mission hinges on these unassuming yet critical devices. Mounted on the surface of the spacecraft, the solar panels were meticulously positioned to capture the optimal amount of sunlight. The way these solar panels are designed ensures that at least one side of the panels is always directly exposed to the Sun. Due to this, the aircraft can receive a constant energy supply. Therefore, when Chandrayaan-3 landed successfully over the Moon's surface, it showcased the reliability and efficiency of solar panel systems.

Understanding the Mechanism of Soft Landings in Space

From the learnings of the Chandrayaan -2 failure, scientists have detected the weak points and added several capabilities in the latest Indian Chandrayaan 3-moon mission that assured a soft landing. ISRO planned the soft landing of the spacecraft, capitalizing on abundant sunlight and power generation via solar panels. The head of ISRO, S. Somnath, also explained that the mechanism of attaching additional solar panels to the lander ensured a gentle touchdown of the spacecraft, producing more power regardless of the landing angle. 

Although the term "soft landing" might seem like a normal thing, it is full of intricate engineering, precise calculations, and innovative technologies that ensure the safety of both the spacecraft and its valuable cargo. 

The absence of a substantial atmosphere in space means that traditional methods of aerodynamic braking, which work on Earth, are ineffective. So, experts have to consider investing their efforts in creating a combination of propulsion systems, landing gear, and autonomous navigation so that they can land the spacecraft "softly." When the combination works in harmony, you can expect to make changes in the thrust levels and angles that can help the spacecraft avoid any hazards on the surface. 

How Four-Sided Solar Panels Elevate Chandrayaan-3's Lunar Quest

The design of the Chandrayaan-3 mission has become the talk of the town as it's such a significant step associated with solar power technology. The concept of "Four-Sided Solar Panels" is an innovative design where solar panels are mounted on multiple sides of the spacecraft. In the Indian Chandrayaan 3-moon mission, this model has been adopted instead of 2 panels in Chandrayaan 2. 

This design ensures maximum power generation or sunlight absorption with the movement or rotation of the spacecraft from different angles. It also helps in distributing power generation more evenly, which is especially important for missions that experience changing lighting conditions, such as those operating in lunar orbit or on the Moon's surface. 

Furthermore, the surface of the Moon is uneven; it was expected that the spacecraft could experience tumbling or rolling motion after landing. So, ISRO scientists went ahead with this modification. 

What are the Main Objectives of the Chandrayaan 3 Mission?

Solar power systems contributed a lot in making the dream Moon mission come true. Here are the prime objectives of the Chandrayaan 3 mission: 

  • Landing a Spacecraft on the Moon and Rover Deployment: As we know already, the main objective of the Indian Chandrayaan 3 moon was to land a spacecraft on the Moon's southern pole surface successfully and deploy a rover to explore the lunar terrain.
  • Studying the Moon's Composition and Geology: The next objective of this mission is to collect data on the composition and geology of the Moon. The collected data will help in understanding the Moon's history and evolution.
  • Scientific Experiments and Research: Behind every ISRO mission like this one, the primary objective is to experiment and research. Hence, this mission's other objective is to study the Moon's environment, including its atmosphere, mineral composition, and seismic activity. The Chandrayaan-3 is equipped with RAMBHA and ILSA, which will help in research. 
  • Capturing Photographs from Lunar Orbit: The mission will result in capturing the Earth from lunar orbit. It will eventually provide information about our planet from a unique angle.
  • Measurement of Lunar Surface Density: Payloads like RAMBHA will measure the density of charged particles near the lunar surface and monitor how it changes over time.
  • Chemical and Elemental Analysis: Instruments such as APXS and LIBS will analyze the chemical and elemental composition of the Moon's surface and soil.
  • Lunar South Pole Exploration: To avoid extreme cold temperatures during the Moon's night, the mission will focus its exploration on the Moon's south pole region.


India has successfully secured its place among the countries that have reached the Moon, and it is the first country to explore the South pole of the Moon, thanks to the Indian Chandrayaan 3 moon mission. This successful mission has been empowered by a silent hero: the solar panels. It empowered the spacecraft, validated the power of solar energy, and enabled India to unleash the hidden mysteries of the Moon. Indeed, it illuminated the successful path of Chandrayan-3, proffering hope to make further successful space missions. 

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